Are you keen to know what ffpe tissue exactly is? Well, FFPE is Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded specimens of tissue that have been used vastly in the medical field for decades. For instance, if one sends the biopsy specimen to the pathologist in the hospital for examination, it’ll be preserved in formalin (formaldehyde) and then embedded in the paraffin wax block. You need to know that fixing a tissue in formalin preserves both the vital structures and the proteins within the tissue. Thus, embedding the tissues in wax normally makes it easier to cut the thin slice, which can be mounted easily on a slide of microscope for examination.
FFPE Tissue- Preparation and Storage
A block of tissue from human is excised from the donor or patient. The tissues may be removed from rats, mice, primates and even snakes. This block will, ideally, measure 1*1*0.5 cubic cm but it may vary depending on the kind of tissue as well as the nature of that disease. However, after excision, the tissue is further immersed in the solution of almost 10% neutral-buffered formaldehyde for the average time of almost 18-24 hours. After this time, it is embedded into the IHC-grade paraffin. The “IHC grade” means paraffin is sold exclusively for embedding the formalin-fixed tissues. These technicians who prepare the tissue block generally follow certain requirements that are outlined by the researcher or else physician demanding the FFPE block. Such requirements generally specify the way the tissue is cut.
An expert medical pathologist is basically involved in the preparation of sample and will assess the quality after its production. What Is highly significant is the time of fixation as the tissues that are fixed excessively may turn useless for the molecular biology studies. However, the tissue should be fixed appropriately and long enough in order to preserve it. These tissue samples are further stored in tissue banks, hospitals as well as research centers. Another crucial factor that determines the usefulness of FFPE block is basically the care wherein the records were kept properly and the tissue was preserved and collected.
Uses of FFPE Tissues
The tissues are frequently utilized in the technique known as “Immunohistochemistry (IHC)”. In this procedure, the tissue sections are fixed on the slide and further bathed in the solutions containing antibodies which will bind to particular structures and proteins. The stains can further be utilized for visualizing the antibodies that will show what structures or proteins are present in this sample as well as where they are. The information can be crucially significant to the doctor looking for certain signs of cancer as well as Alzheimer’s disease or else other malady.
The information that is received from IHC is the key to majority of cancer research projects that are being done in the labs today. One complication to formaldehyde fixation procedure is it denatures the proteins and further makes them undetectable to the antibodies that are developed in order to detect them. The antigen retrieval procedures are solely developed in order to recompense for this. In the present era, certain procedures have been developed in order to recover RNA, DNA, as well as the proteins from FFPE samples. Well, this opens up the huge trove of annotated material which can be implemented for biochemistry studies and molecular biology. If you’re keen to gain more information on the topic, read this Biochain.Com.