In order to restrict the movement between two bones and avoid back pain, a surgery is performed to join two or more into a single structure. This surgery is called Spinal fusion surgery. The surgery is recommended when general treatments from physicians like medication, exercise and steroid injections are unable to cure the back pain of the patient.
It is a solution of the back pain is caused due to:
• Scoliosis (Bending of spine to one side)
• Spondylolisthesis (Spinal disk shifting forward)
• Degenerative disk (Narrowing of space between disks)
• Spinal Stenosis (Spinal cord Narrowing)
The surgery is not suggested as the first option. It is recommended after months of treatment and analysis and used only as a last resort when the back pain is incurable. The types of Spine surgery are as follows:
1. Laminectomy used for stenosis and spondylolisthesis affected patients. It reducing pressure on the spinal nerves by removing parts of backbone.
2. Foraminotomy removes compressing tissues that compresses the nerves in the back
3. Spinal disc replacement where an artificial disc replaces the original spinal disc. The practice is not in common now a days
4. Discectomy it is performed on the disc that separates two vertebrae which if herniates inwards presses the spinal nerves causing pain.
5. Spine Fusion to join two vertebrae to increase stability of spine
Several tests and X- rays needs to be done prior to the operation. Few things that needs to be ponder on prior to the operation are:
1. Avoid taking certain drugs and medicines prior to the surgery.
2. Make a list of the eatables that can and cannot be taken before procedure.
3. Arrangements in home like raised toilet, reaches and shower chairs.
There are two ways of performing spinal surgery:
1. The doctor goes in through abdominal region to perform the operation known anterior lumbar interbody fusion.
2. The doctor goes into the body from back known as Posterior fusion
After penetrating into the patient body the doctor checks the spine and makes adjustment accordingly. Bones from another part of the patient body can be used to connect the discs this is called as grafting. If the bones are taken from another human body then it is called donor grafting. Best hospital for spine surgery in India is available at many metropolitan cities of the country.
As with any other surgeries Spinal surgeries also have complication s like bleeding, infection in operation area and blood clotting. Other problems include Nerve injury and infection during donor graft due to tissue rejection.
In case of any complication after the operation inform the doctor immediately without any delay. After the surgery, a stay in the hospital is recommended which depends upon the severity of the surgery. Many tubes are connected to the patient during this time these are called IV that goes through the arm and provides antibiotics, fluids needed by the body. Epidural Catheter to provide pain medicine from the back. Another tube called catheter is connected at the point where we urinate so that there is minimal movement of the body.
Conclusion: Also, there would be therapists and physicians who would guide the patient on how to walk, sit and get up after the surgery. Recovery from the operation takes time and patience. It takes nearly 6 months to 1yr for an individual to recover completely.