Progressive overload is among the most basic principles in weight training, and unfortunately among those that are usually misunderstood by both the beginning trainee and the trainer/coach. With the continual rise in popularity of CrossFit, many more people are getting involved with strength conditioning. Thus, a better understanding of this basic principle is integral to optimally train and develop an athlete. Bret Contreras returns to give us greater insight into progressive overload by laying out 10 ground rules. But let’s begin at the beginning: What is progressive overload?
Progressive Overload Defined
[P]rogressive overload simply means that you’re doing more over time. For example, you could be adding some weight to the bar, doing more reps, and/or having more productive training sessions. You won’t find many comprehensive articles on this topic as it’s pretty difficult to write an all-encompassing article pertaining to progressive overload. Due to the large variance in the fitness abilities of people when they first embark on a training regimen, it’s a little more complicated than simply telling someone to “add 10 more pounds to the bar each week,” or “do 2 more reps with the same weight each week.”
10 “Rules” of Progressive Overload
There is no one-size-fits-all formula to how to approach progressive overload; every athlete is different based on their starting point, prior athletic experience, mobility, and so on. Coaches and trainers working with athletes closely can ensure that newbies and veterans alike experience growth.
1. Progressive Overload starts with whatever you can do with perfect technical form
You’ll find that due to your unique body type, you’ll have an advantage with some exercises and a huge disadvantage with others.Let’s say you’re brand new to a particular exercise. You’ve seen all sorts of YouTube videos of strong lifters hoisting hundreds of pounds. You think you’re a strong cat, so you load up the plates and find that the exercise just doesn’t feel right. It feels awkward, unnatural, you don’t feel the right muscles working, and it even seems jarring on the joints and potentially injurious. This exercise is definitely not right for you, right? Wrong! The exercise is probably right for you, but your approach was all wrong.
Do not concern yourself with what others use for loading. When you begin an exercise, start out as light as possible and gradually work your way up….
You’ll find that due to your unique body type, you’ll have an advantage with some exercises and a huge disadvantage with others. Long femurs? You probably won’t set any squat records, but your weighted back extension strength is going to kick some serious butt. Long arms? Kiss your bench press records goodbye, but you’re gonna be a deadlifting rockstar.
Figure out where you belong on the regression-progression continuum (this is basically a list of each variation of an exercise from the easiest possible version to the most challenging version) and start getting stronger.
2. Progressive Overload for beginners involves a few tenetsProgressive overload only works when you challenge the muscles to do more over time, and your muscles will not be forced to do more if your form gets sloppy.Progressive overload methodology is different for beginners compared to more advanced lifters. It’s also different for men compared to women and for those carrying a lot of muscle versus those not carrying much muscle. For example, I can’t just tell a woman who is brand new to strength training to just add ten pounds to the bar for squats and deadlifts each week. First of all, chances are some work has to be done just to get her to squat and deadlift properly, before ever focusing on load. Some clients should start out with partial range lifts such as bodyweight box squats and rack pulls and simply work on “progressive distance training,” whereby the range of motion is slightly increased each week. If you keep squatting your own bodyweight (or rack pulling 65lbs) for 3 sets of 10, but each week you descend an inch deeper, that’s progressive overload. Eventually you’ll be using a full range of motion and can then concern yourself with adding load.
With exercises that have you moving a significant portion of your body, such as squats, hip thrusts, back extensions, and lunges, you must master your own bodyweight before adding load. I like my clients to be able to perform 3 sets of 20 full-ROM reps with bodyweight exercises before adding load.
So, just as with all principles of fitness, a strong foundation must be established before venturing into the next stage of things; proper mechanics is paramount to intensity or volume!
3. Progressive Overload can be achieved in a variety of ways (12 primary ways I can think of)
Adaptations happen in waves. Sometimes you’ll make big jumps in a single week in a particular quality, while other times you’ll stall for three months in another quality.
Remember, progressive overload is simply “doing more over time.” There are many ways to go about this. In this article, I’ve already mentioned progressing in range of motion, repetitions, and load. In the beginning, you want to progress in range of motion and form. Yes, if you do the same workout you did the week before, but with better form, that’s progression. You “did more” for the neuromuscular system in terms of motor patterning and even muscle force since using better form involves relying more on the targeted muscles.
After proper form and full range of motion are established and ingrained, now it’s time to worry about progressing in repetitions and load. But these aren’t the only ways to progress. Here are all the practical ways I can think of:
- Lifting the same load for increased distance (range of motion)
- Lifting the same load and volume with better form, more control, and less effort (efficiency)
- Lifting the same load for more reps (volume)
- Lifting heavier loads (intensity of load)
- Lifting the same load and volume with less rest time in between sets (density)
- Lifting a load with more speed and acceleration (intensity of effort)
- Doing more work in the same amount of time (density) (sound familiar?)
- Doing the same work in less amount of time (density)
- Doing more sets with the same load and reps (volume)
- Lifting the same load and volume more often throughout the week (frequency)
- Doing the same work while losing body mass (increased relative volume)
- Lifting the same load and volume and then extending the set past technical failure with forced reps, negatives, drop sets, static holds, rest pause, partial reps, or post-exhaustion (intensity of effort)
Just remember, improvements in form and ROM come first, and increases in reps and load come second.